Modern Medicine

Understanding Plantar Fasciitis: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

by | Nov 17, 2023

Walking, running, standing – these everyday activities depend on the intricate interplay of bones, muscles, and ligaments in our feet. One crucial element of this system is the plantar fascia, a thick band of connective tissue that stretches from the heel to the toes. When this band becomes inflamed or strained, it leads to a painful condition known as plantar fasciitis.

Plantar fasciitis is a common foot ailment that can disrupt your daily life. To help you understand this condition better, we’ll delve into the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for plantar fasciitis, equipping you with the knowledge you need to tackle this condition head-on.

What Causes Plantar Fasciitis?

Plantar fasciitis can be caused by various factors. Overuse and repetitive strain, such as engaging in activities that put excessive stress on the plantar fascia, like running, dancing, or prolonged standing, can lead to microtears in the tissue, resulting in inflammation. 

Abnormal foot mechanics, including issues with foot structure or gait like high arches, flat feet, or tight Achilles tendons, can predispose individuals to this condition by altering how the foot absorbs shock and increasing the stress on the plantar fascia. 

Moreover, as we age, the plantar fascia becomes less flexible and more susceptible to injury, making middle-aged and older individuals more prone to developing plantar fasciitis. Additionally, obesity, with the extra body weight it entails, places additional pressure on the feet, increasing the likelihood of developing this condition. Lastly, wearing inadequate footwear, such as shoes lacking proper arch support, cushioning, or a proper fit, can contribute to the development of plantar fasciitis.

Symptoms of Plantar Fasciitis

Recognising the symptoms of plantar fasciitis is crucial for early intervention. This condition typically manifests with the following signs:

  • Heel Pain: The most common symptom of plantar fasciitis is a sharp, stabbing pain in the heel, often experienced with the first few steps in the morning. This discomfort can also worsen after long periods of standing or physical activity.
  • Stiffness: People with plantar fasciitis often report stiffness in the affected foot, which tends to improve with gentle stretching.
  • Tenderness: The heel or the bottom of the foot may become tender to touch, particularly near the origin of the plantar fascia at the heel bone.
  • Radiating Pain: In some cases, the pain can radiate along the arch of the foot, making walking and even simple tasks unbearable.
  • Swelling: While less common, some individuals with plantar fasciitis may experience swelling in the heel area.

Now that you understand the causes and symptoms, let’s explore the various treatment options available.

Treatment Options for Plantar Fasciitis

  • Personalised Podiatry Care: A podiatrist will assess your Plantar Fasciitis and make personalised recommendations to help you minimise symptoms and maximise your mobility. 
  • Rest and Activity Modification: Reducing or modifying activities that exacerbate the condition is essential. Rest allows the plantar fascia to heal, and modifying your activities can help prevent further injury.
  • Icing: Applying ice to the affected area can help reduce inflammation and alleviate pain. Ice can be applied for 15-20 minutes at a time, several times a day.
  • Stretching Exercises: Regularly stretching the Achilles tendon, calf muscles, and the plantar fascia can improve flexibility and reduce strain on the fascia. Simple calf stretches and towel stretches are recommended exercises.
  • Supportive Footwear: Wearing shoes with proper arch support and cushioning is vital in managing plantar fasciitis. Orthotic insoles or custom-made inserts can provide additional support.
  • Night Splints: Night splints hold the foot in a dorsiflexed position overnight, which helps stretch the plantar fascia and reduce morning pain.
  • Anti-Inflammatory Medications: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen or naproxen can be taken to reduce pain and inflammation, but they should be used under medical supervision and for a limited duration.
  • Physical Therapy: A physical therapist can guide you through exercises and stretches that target the underlying causes of plantar fasciitis and help prevent its recurrence.
  • Corticosteroid Injections: In cases of severe pain and inflammation, a healthcare provider may recommend corticosteroid injections to provide temporary relief. These injections should be administered by a medical professional.
  • Shockwave Therapy: Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) is a non-invasive procedure that uses shockwaves to stimulate healing in the affected area. It has shown promising results in some cases.
  • Surgery: Surgical intervention is considered a last resort when conservative treatments fail to provide relief. Surgery involves releasing the tension on the plantar fascia or removing damaged tissue.

It’s important to note that the choice of treatment may vary from person to person, depending on the severity of their condition and their individual needs. Consulting with a podiatry professional is crucial to determine the most suitable treatment plan.

Preventing Plantar Fasciitis

Prevention is always better than cure, and there are steps you can take to reduce your risk of developing plantar fasciitis:

  • Proper Footwear: Invest in supportive shoes that provide adequate arch support and cushioning. Avoid wearing shoes with worn-out soles or inadequate support.
  • Gradual Increase in Activity: If you’re starting a new exercise regimen, increase the intensity and duration gradually to allow your feet to adapt.
  • Stretch Regularly: Incorporate stretching exercises into your daily routine to maintain flexibility in your calf muscles and Achilles tendon.
  • Maintain a Healthy Weight: If you’re overweight, losing excess pounds can alleviate pressure on your feet and reduce the risk of plantar fasciitis.
  • Stay Hydrated: Proper hydration is essential for maintaining tissue health and elasticity.

Seek Professional Podiatry Support Today

Plantar fasciitis is a painful condition that can affect your daily life, but with the right knowledge and treatment, you may be able to manage it more easily. If you’re experiencing symptoms of plantar fasciitis, consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and tailored treatment plan.

Remember that early intervention and a combination of conservative treatments can often provide relief without the need for surgery. By following preventive measures and taking steps to address the condition, you may be able to improve your mobility and manage your pain.

If you or someone you know is struggling with plantar fasciitis, don’t hesitate to speak to our teams at Modern Medicine today.


Sam Balson Modern Medicine

Sam Balson


Sam Balson, Clinical Myotherapist and Director at Modern Medicine, combines his ballet background with expertise in injury rehab and pain management. His dance injuries fuel his passion for helping others achieve pain-free lives.

Sam’s multidisciplinary approach at Modern Medicine prioritises exceptional care and strong client relationships, setting new standards in healthcare.

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